verb conjugation
Konkow does not conform with the concept of verb conjugation as we understand it in English. Pronouns are often omitted completely and inferred from the context. Here we examine see{c'é}
notice any differences between see and look
see - {c'é}{in}
neutral semantically, identifies non-finite verb. Usually implies non-past or recent past, but can occur with verbs in any tense, and is the main verb ending in story past.
mỳmampa   sými   c’èn
He wondered if he saw the deer.
mỳmampa
he.​wondered
   
sými
deer
   
c’èn
see
   
má’atipàj   c’én
That is what I might have seen.
má’ati
like.​that
-pà
doubt
-j
1st.​person
   
c’é
see
-n
verb.​final
   
sá   ʔéndimk’ò:dojnak   c’én
He saw the fire way back there behind (the mountain).
fire
   
ʔéndim
x
-k’ò
snow
-:doj
country
-nak
toward
   
c’é
see
-n
verb.​final
   
ʔámam   hìma   c’én,   ʔámwete,   mý・me・n
He had already seen them, but he didn’t shoot.
ʔámam
them
   
hìma
x
   
c’én,
see
   
ʔámwete,
but.​although
   
mý・me・n
2nd.​person.​prohibative
   
(mòmc’á・hani   c’én.)   c’én.
Do you see that tree? I see it.
(mòm
that
-c’á・
tree
-hani
did.​you
   
c’én.)
see
   
c’én.
see
   
(hésihani   c’én.)   c’á:.
What did you see? A tree.
(hési
(what
-hani
did.​you
   
c’é
see
-n.)
verb.​final)
   
c’á:.
a.​tree
   
ʔùjna:   ʔýsipjèssesa   c’én
He saw (us) as we came out of the house.
ʔùjna:
house
   
ʔý
motion
-sip
outward
-jè
plural
-sse
x
-sa
habitual
   
c’é
see
-n
verb.​final
   
nìhánc’opas   ʔàmamkóle:   c’én
I wonder if I might have seen that boy.
I
-hánc’opas
wondered
   
ʔàmam
that
-kóle:
boy
   
c’én
see
   
k’ájpihamdèno   ník   c’én
You saw me yesterday.
k’áj
yesterday
-pi
verb.​root
-ha
to.​be
-m
object
-dè
question
-no
you
   
ník
me
   
c’én
see
   
némmùldihàj   máji   c’én
I see a salmon in deep water.
ném
very
-mùl
deep.​spot
-di
at
-hà
auxiliary
-j
1st.​person
   
máji
salmon
   
c’é
see
-n
verb.​final
   
mỳjemká:no   c’én,   mómàka
He saw that fellow (lying there) like that.
mỳje
that
-m
relational
-ká:no
fellow(object)
   
c’é
see
-n,
verb.​final
   
móm
that
-àka
like
   
see - {c'é}//bO//
permission, Allomorph of {be} before first person dual and plural
mỳhaj   méjin,   c’éboʔàn
I gave it to him so that he could see it.
mỳ
he
-haj
aux
   
méjin,
x
   
c’é
see
-bo
permissive
-ʔàn
consequence
   
see - {c'é}{da}
question
c’édaja:m
Did you two see it?
c’é
see
-da
question
-ja:
dual
-m
nominalizer
   
see - {c'é}{de}
question, interrogative mode before dual or plural
c’édejem
Did you (pl.) see it?
c’é
see
-de
question
-je
plural
-m
past
   
see - {c'é}{je}
plural subjective (Ø after py, be)
c’éjem
Did you (pl.) see him?
c’é
see
-je
plural
-m
nominalizer
   
see - {c'é}{k'oj}
move away from in an unspecified direction; unable, incapable of, fail to
c’èḱ’ojdàja:m
Did you two go to see it?
c’è
see
-ḱ’oj
go
-dà
question
-ja:
dual.​2nd.​person
-m
descriptive
   
c’ék’ojdàja:s
Did we two see it?
c’é
see
-k’oj
move.​away
-dà
question
-ja:
dual
-s
crucial.​plural
   
mýjesa:ma   nìk   c’ék’o:n
They (those two) came to see me.
X
-je
general.​demonstrative
-sa:
past
-ma
X
   
nìk
I
   
c’é
see
-k’o:n
past
   
see - {c'é}{meH}
negative. devise for expressing prohibition
màʔadi   ʔibé:di,   já:tiptiptonte   c’émè:n!
They looked about everywhere over there, but didn’t see him!”
màʔa
dem
-di
at
   
ʔibé:
all
-di,
at
   
já:tip
look.​for
-tip
reduplication
-to
about
-n
verb.​final
-te
but
   
c’é
see
-mè:
neg
-n!
verb.​final
   
see - {c'é}{my}
3rd person
c’émyan
let oneself be seen
c’é
see
-my
3rd.​person
-an
say
   
see - {c'é}{ni}
2nd.person.subj.sing Allomorph of {no} - //ni// after {de}'interrogative'
kóle:   c’éni
Did you see the boy?
kóle:
boy
   
c’éni
see
   
see - {c'é}{s}
emphasis.plural - imperative plural, relatively mild emphasis
c’és
Let me see.
c’é
see
-s
emphasis.​plural
   
see - {c'é}{sy}
habitual, continuous action, goal oriented or purposeful
c’ésyn
look at continuously, stare
c’é
see
-sy
continuious.​action
-n
verb.​final
   
see - {c'é}{ti}
cause, causative
hìni   c’étik’òJn
go to see a doctor about one’s eyes
hìni
eyes
   
c’é
see
-ti
cause
-k’òJ
move.​away
-n
verb.​final