These are the vocabulary words that will be introduced in this lesson.
Pronouns are words like “I,” “me” (first person); “you” (second person); and “he, him, she, her, it” (third person). And of course there are the plural pronouns like “we”, “us,” “they” and “them”. That’s how they work in English.
However, Konkow does have a very rich pronoun system. We will start by showing you the subject and object pronouns. Examine the chart below.
singular mí mín
singular mým, momis mý,mó
The exceptions are these:
- ni is the 1st person singular subject, don’t add ‑m to it.
- mi is the 2nd person singular subject, don’t add ‑m to it.
- nik is the 1st person singular object, so unlike all the other pronouns, you add -k.
- min is the 2nd person singular object, so unlike all other pronouns, you add -n.
Using the English translation as your guide, put the correct pronouns in the following sentences. Say the sentences out loud, too, for practice. (We aren’t separating all the components of each word, but you should recognize a few components here and there.
He must have sung.
màko: wótiminc’ehàj, -t’akì:n.
If you.plural catch the fish, I will roast it.
we.two are reading.
I gave it to you.alone.
Tell me a story!
Here are some examples from the Lost Swimmer:
As you saw earlier in this lesson there are several suffixes that are added to pronouns. We learned about the three roots and the suffixes for dual and plural. For the subjective case an -m is added. For the objective case the pronoun root is simply used. There are two additional suffixes we would like to call attention to here with pronouns that end with k’i (possessive) and ones that end with k’an (with).
|1st person||Singular||nik'i, nik||nikk'an|
|ours (dual)||with us (dual)|
|our (plural)||with us (plural)|
|2nd person||Singular||mink'i, min||mink'an|
|your, your's||with you|
|your, yours (dual)||with you (dual)|
|your, yours (plural)||with you (plural)|
|3rd person||Singular||mym, momis||myk'an|
|he, she, it||with him, her, it|
|their, their's (dual)||with them (dual)|
|they (plural)||with them (plural)|
Here’s an example from Coyote and the Turtle Girls: Coyote sees the Turtle Girls swimming, and asks “How is the water?” They respond “It’s fine.” So then Coyote says:
These are more common than the plain subject pronouns because they are more emphatic. So we see again, that pronouns are primarily used for emphasis.