demonstratives
vocabulary words
demonstratives
my 3rd person pronoun (he, she, it)
myje general demonstrative (that one)
ʔa anaphoric (mentioned before)
ʔama anaphoric demonstrative (that one mentioned before)
mo deictic demonstrative (the one I’m pointing to)
moje demonstrative (that one I’m pointing to)
héde proximal this, here, now
hódo medial that, there, then, later
húdu distal yon, yonder, much earlier or later
verb roots
eat mé: grab
pípa: swim ʔýdo: climb
bə́də be happy c’é see/look
péska whisper ʔysí get out
wénne be good já:he look around
noun roots
ʔó: rock c'a: tree
kawaja horse
suffixes
-di toward -j 1st.person (I)
-c’ok’ dual (on nouns) -sa: dual
-paj, -pa plural (human) -nono plural (non-human)
-pa dubitative (maybe)
Konkow does not have words for “a” or “the.” jý:py can mean “a girl” or “the girl.”
But they do have words like “that.” They are called demonstratives.
Looking through the transcriptions of the stories, you can see lots of those words. Here are a few from Coyote and the Turtle Girls. Let’s just look at two of the common ones for now and see how they interact with nouns.
mỳjem ʔó:di That rock
mỳjem ká:nom That man
mỳjem jý:pyc’ok’om Those girls
ʔàmam jý:pym That girl
ʔàmam jý:pyc’ok’om Those girls
ʔàmam ʔó:-di "to" that rock

(“to” is indicated by the –di. We’ll discuss that later.)

The -m on the demonstratives in the examples above is the same -m that connects other describing words to nouns, that we talked about in lesson 4.

So the roots of the demonstratives would be:

mỳje and ʔàma

We introduced my in Lesson 5 as the 3rd person pronoun (most often translating as “he” or “she”). Adding the -je suffix makes it the demonstrative.

Ultan calls mỳje a “general” demonstrative, which would mean that it doesn’t differentiate by distance from speaker, whereas English “this and that” do. (So if mỳje was referring to something close by, an English translation might use “this”.) And Ultan calls ‘àma an “anaphoric”, which means you are referring to someone or something you have mentioned before. A third demonstrative is like “that guy” (or “this guy”) does in English. Anyway, both mỳje and ‘àma usually translate as “that”.

The third demonstrative, mo, mòje, is less common in the stories. Ultan calls it a “deictic,” meaning it “points” to something. The examples in his dissertation all involve referring to something that is in sight of the speaker or narrator.

Examples:

mòje   péwa!
Eat them (those berries there)!
context.​dependent
-je
that.​those
   
attributivizer
-wa!
imperrative.​plural
   

More than one demonstrative is used in same sentence sometimes:

ʔàmamjý:pym   mé:nkani,   mỳjemkóle:kan
that girl grabbed that boy (Coyote).
ʔàmam
that
-jý:py
girl
-m
subject
   
mé:
grab
-n
neutral
-kani,
and.​then
   
mỳjem
that
-kóle:
boy
-kan
with
   

If we look at that sentence in context, it may be a clue as to when you might choose one of those words over the other:

Now those two girls were talking to one another, those two were chatting. "I'm going to go in again." said one to the other on the rock. That (ʔàmam) girl grabbed that (mỳjem) boy.

Both the girls and Coyote (referred to in this sentence as “that boy”) have been given the myje demonstrative throughout the story. In this case, the narrative is pointing out that of the two girls, it was the one who had spoken who grabbed the boy. The use of ʔàma in that case is referring to the girl just mentioned (the “aforementioned girl”).

If you skim through the whole text of Coyote and the Turtle Girls or other stories, you’ll see that the demonstratives are used a great deal. In some cases mýje can just translate as “he” or “she”, or “that.one”, if it is not followed by a noun.

Line 15 is an example.

pípa:n,   mỳjem   ʔó:di   ʔýdo:n.
He swam to it and climbed that rock.
pípa:
swim toward
-n,
verb.​final
   
mỳje
dem
-m
subject
   
ʔó:
rock
-di
onto
   
ʔý
move
-do:
climb
-n.
verb.​final
   
plural demonstratives
If you are talking about more than one person or thing, the demonstrative will take one of the following suffixes:
-sa dual (two)
-paj (or -pa:) plural for humans
-nono plural for non-humans
mósa:mpa   hàn
Maybe it was those two (ie. standing over there.
that
-sa:
dual
-m
subject
-pa
maybe
   
be
-n
verb.​final
   
ʔámapa:ma   bə́dǝn
those people were happy
ʔáma
that
-pa:
plural
-ma
nominalizer
   
bə́dǝ
be.​happy
-n
verb.​final
   
ʔámanono
those (non-human)
ʔáma
that
-nono
plural(nonhuman)
   
Examples:
mòsa:mpa hàn.
Maybe it was those two (i.e. standing over there)
mò-sa:-m-pa that
-dual
-subject
-maybe
hà-n. be
-verb.final


ʔámapa:ma bə́den Those people were happy.
ʔáma-pa:-ma that
-plural
-nominalizer
bə́de-n be.happy
-verb.final



ʔámanono
those (objects)
ʔáma that
nono plural (nonhuman)



connection of demonstrative to nouns
In Ultan’s dissertation and texts, he frequently writes the demonstratives connected to the following noun without a space between. An example from his dissertation:
ʔàmamkáwajam   májdym   hasám
That horse was a man
ʔàmam
that
-káwaja
horse
-m
subject
   
májdy
man
-m
subject
   
ha
be
-sám
it.​is.​said
   
He writes them together because of the stress patterns (see Lesson 1.) Primary stress (marked with ´ over the vowel) is usually on the first syllable of the word, but the demonstratives usually have secondary stress ( ` ). In our examples we sometimes separate the demonstratives from the noun that follows, for ease of interpreting the words. In Exercise 1 at the end of this lesson, we will give you practice doing that separation yourself.
distal demonstratives
The “distal demonstratives” translate with words like “here,” “there,” “yonder.” An interesting fact about them is that the vowels of the word change depending on how far away the object is.
ho, he, hu distal demonstrative héde proximal this, here, now hódo medial that, there, then, later húdu distal yon, yonder, much earlier or later Now these words are more like the English words “this” and “that” or “here” and “there”, depending on context. It can also be used to talk about time: nì hédedi k’ǝhkit ’ùdihàno, ‘ýdan. While I was sitting here, you arrived. nì héde-di k’ǝhkit ’ùdi hà-no, ’ýdan. I here-at sitting place-at aux-.you arrived. hède pép! Eat this! hède pé-p this eat-imperative hédem ’ysí:s ’ànano wénnekì:n. If you get out now, you will be all right. hédem ’ysíis’ànhano wénnekì:n. now you.get.out it.will.be.good
demonstratives on their own
Demonstratives can also be the main noun of the noun phrase.
Here are some examples: As the subject of the sentence: mýsa:m pésketon. Those two whispered to each other. mý-sa:-m péske-to-n. that-two-subject whispered.to.each.other and commonly with locative suffixes to refer to a place: akym àmaná: jà:héjje:n. And from there they looked around. akym àma-ná: jà:héjje:n And that (place)-from they.looked.around
Summary •Demonstratives are words that normally translate as “this or “that” •The main demonstratives are: mỳje general demonstrative ama anaphoric demonstrative mòje deictic demonstrative •A demonstrative before a noun is a describing word, and will have the -m suffix just like other describing words do. (See Lesson 4.) •Demonstratives take suffixes to talk about more than one person (or non-person) -sa dual -paj, pa: plural human -nono plural non-human •Ultan often writes demonstratives as connected to the following noun without a space. He does this because of stress patterning. •Distal demonstratives refer to space and time. The distal demonstratives are: héde proximal this, here, now hódo medial that, there, then, later húdu distal yon, yonder, much earlier or later
Exercise 1
Practice the words you just learned by moving responses up or down until they match. Click the up or down arrow to make them move. When you think you have them right, check. Then scramble and play again.
ʔámapa:ma
bə́dən
áma
nakaj
ʔýk'ojm
mýjesa:ma
nik
c'é
those peopleUPDOWN
were happyUPDOWN
thereUPDOWN
IUPDOWN
goUPDOWN
theyUPDOWN
meUPDOWN
seeUPDOWN
Hit Check to see if you have them all correct
demonstrative dice
Cut out and assemble the die template using clear tape. Roll the dice and translate the phrases into English using the key below. This can be played with 1, 2 or more learners.
mỳjem ʔó:di That rock
mỳjem ká:nom That man
mỳjem jý:pyc’ok’om Those girls
ʔàmam jý:pym That girl
ʔàmam jý:pyc’ok’om Those girls
ʔàmam ɂó:-di to that rock
image of die
exercise 3
crossword puzzle image
answer key to crossword puzzle
*****lesson title*****
*****lesson info*****
extra materials
Extra resources, charts, posters, etc
use these extras for reference and to practice what you have learned