Component
Gloss
Class Description
h
plural
Class #01 - Thematic Suffixes - Distributives
j
stem.formant
Class #01 - Thematic Suffixes - Distributives
sy
continuious.action
Class #02 - Thematic Suffixes - Purposive-Habitual
t’a
on.top.of.move into
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
miT
in
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
toto
about
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
si:to
across.through
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
wajto
apart
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
in
downward
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
immoto, moto
together
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
c’iK, c’ip, c’ih
block
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
c’o
over
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
daW
away
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
dik
against
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
piN
toward
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
túJ
reverse
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
jeH
motion
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
kiT
downward
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
koJ
move.away, leave
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
no
move
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
paJ
against
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
siP
complete
Class #03 - Thematic Suffixes - Locative Directionals
ti
cause
Class #04 - Thematic Suffixes - Object Designators
t’a
on.top.of
Class #04 - Thematic Suffixes - Object Designators
miT
into
Class #04 - Thematic Suffixes - Object Designators
toto
about
Class #04 - Thematic Suffixes - Object Designators
toto
reciprocal.for
Class #04 - Thematic Suffixes - Object Designators
si:to
through
Class #04 - Thematic Suffixes - Object Designators
jo
frequent
Class #05 - Thematic Suffixes - Iterative
doJ
about.to
Class #06 - Thematic Suffixes - Aspects
bos
finish
Class #06 - Thematic Suffixes - Aspects
os
finish
Class #06 - Thematic Suffixes - Aspects
dow
commit
Class #06 - Thematic Suffixes - Aspects
meH (me, mi:)
negative
Class #07 - Thematic Suffixes - Negative
me
negative
Class #07 - Thematic Suffixes - Negative
mi:
negative
Class #07 - Thematic Suffixes - Negative
kiT
future.finish
Class #08 - Thematic Suffixes - Tense – Aspect
kammoto
continue
Class #08 - Thematic Suffixes - Tense – Aspect
wono
remote.past
Class #08 - Thematic Suffixes - Tense – Aspect
We’es, we:s
habit
Class #09 - Thematic Suffixes - Aspects - Modal
sa
reoccuring.habit
Class #09 - Thematic Suffixes - Aspects - Modal
na:
possible
Class #09 - Thematic Suffixes - Aspects - Modal
ma
past
Class #10 - Thematic Suffixes - Tense
mma
wish.had
Class #10 - Thematic Suffixes - Tense
im
past
Class #10 - Thematic Suffixes - Tense
n
unsure
Class #11 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
c’o
hearsay
Class #12 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
pe
condition
Class #12 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
de
question
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
dO
question
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
de2
non-interrogative, presently unidentifyable
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
da
question
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
pa
doubt
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
be
permission
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
bO
permission
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
by
prohibit
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
py
encourage
Class #13 - Inflectional Suffixes/Modals
ja
dual
Class #14 - Inflectional Subject - Number
je
plural
Class #14 - Inflectional Subject - Number
is
me
Class #15 - Inflectional Subject - Person
no
you
Class #15 - Inflectional Subject - Person
su, sy
going.to
Class #16 - Inflectional Imperatives - Tense 1
k’uton
going.to
Class #17 - Inflectional Imperatives - Tense 2
p
command.you
Class #18 - Inflectional Imperatives - often occur with !
Wa
command.plural
Class #18 - Inflectional Imperatives - often occur with !
s
crucial.plural
Class #19 - Postfixes - Emphatics, Concessives, Subordinators
kas
crucial.plural
Class #19 - Postfixes - Emphatics, Concessives, Subordinators
ta
concessive
Class #19 - Postfixes - Emphatics, Concessives, Subordinators
hajdyk
intense
Class #19 - Postfixes - Emphatics, Concessives, Subordinators
c’e
nevertheless
Class #19 - Postfixes - Emphatics, Concessives, Subordinators
c’ewi:n
because
Class #19 - Postfixes - Emphatics, Concessives, Subordinators
‘an
consequence
Class #20 - Postfixes - Anaphoric Resultant
omis
refers.back
Additional components not found in current charts
ti2
for
Additional components not found in current charts
to
same.object.subject
Additional components not found in current charts
to
recipricol.object.subject
Additional components not found in current charts
to
two.vertical.objects
Additional components not found in current charts
to
two.people
Additional components not found in current charts
to
several.people
Additional components not found in current charts
to
for.the.fun.of.it
Additional components not found in current charts
toto
between.people
Additional components not found in current charts
toto
locational.directional
Additional components not found in current charts
j
1st.person.subject
Additional components not found in current charts
no AS min, ny, ni, no, mo, m
2nd.person.subject
Additional components not found in current charts
m
object
Additional components not found in current charts
ti3
adverb.suffix
Additional components not found in current charts
in
verb.marker or verb.final
Participles- with and closes verb themes - Non-Finite main verb class
ma, im
past tense
Participles- with and closes verb themes - Non-Finite main verb class
is’an
same.adverb.subject.
Participles- with and closes verb themes - Non-Finite main verb class clause subordinators
we
continious.action
Participles- with and closes verb themes - Non-Finite main verb class clause subordinators
ha
to.be
Auxilary verbs
ma ~ ha
to.be
Auxilary verbs
pa
doubt
Auxilary verbs
bÓ-doJ
begin
Aspectuals related to constructions of bÓ
bÓ-kiT
downward.begin
Aspectuals related to constructions of bÓ
bÓ-kiJ
unable
Aspectuals related to constructions of bÓ
pú-to
almost
Modal like auxilaries
táwal
habitual
Modal like auxilaries
‘ý-jeH
continious.motion
Modal like auxilaries
bís
exist
Modal like auxilaries
c’ekiT
seems
Modal like auxilaries
háwaky
seems.maybe
Modal like auxilaries
japa:n
happened.to
Modal like auxilaries
k’ájeH
go.around
Modal like auxilaries
‘ú
be.somewhere
Modal like auxilaries
be
Copulas
k’ólo
not.to
Copulas
y
motion
Copulas
Component
Gloss
Full Gloss
‘an
consequence
anaphoric resultant, referring to or replacing an earlier word, connector
‘ú
be.somewhere
locative. be in a place, somewhere, there.
‘ý-jeH
continious.motion
1) continuous motion 2) verb come hither
be
permission
permissive optative, expresses permission granted or the result or expected result of permission
bís
exist
stay, exist, live
bO
permission
allomorphy of (be) before first person dual and plural
bÓ-doJ
begin
inceptive
bÓ-kiJ
unable
unable, have difficulty
bÓ-kiT
downward.begin
inceptive, 1) downward, terminative 2) future tense in
bos
finish
completive, adds a sense of completeness, finish doing something.
by
prohibit
cavetive optative, expresses prohibition, warning, negative result
c’e
nevertheless
subject of dependent and main clause different (se after s) nevertheless, although, in spite of
c’ekiT
seems
seem c’é(see)+kiT(down, terminative, future)
c’ewi:n
because
causative, because
c’iK, c’ip, c’ih
block
block, plug, cover an opening
c’o
over
over, over edge of
c’o
hearsay
quotative or hearsay
da
question
allomorphy before a
daW
away
off of or away from and toward a goal; come toward
de
question
interrogative mode before dual or plural
de2
non-interrogative, presently unidentifyable
allomorphy elsewhere
dik
against
against, facing, opposing
dO
question
allomorphy dO before dual and plural, zero in second person
doJ
about.to
inceptive, denotes incipient action or condition. Also occurs as a LD.
dow
commit
comitative, engage in , execute or effect. Represents accompanying or concomitant action.
h
plural
plural distributive
ha
to.be
neutral, be, do, happen (see sec.590)
be
be
hajdyk
intense
intensive
háwaky
seems.maybe
seem (like), maybe. Occurs with in
im
past
past tense, allomorph of ma after vowel and CV sequence
immoto, moto
together
together; move together, around, circle, about
in
downward
downward
in
verb.marker or verb.final
neutral semantically, identifies non-finite verbs- past, remote past, future and unmarked or recent.
is
me
first person subject; j before Ø after ma and py
is’an
same.adverb.subject.
when subject of both the participle and the main clause are identical.
j
stem.formant
stem formant (forms verb or noun)
j
1st.person.subject
first person subject after auxiliary verb
ja
dual
dual subject (Ø after py, be)
japa:n
happened.to
happened to, it seems
je
plural
plural subjective (Ø after py, be)
jeH
motion
continuous motion in unspecified direction
jo
frequent
iterative, frequent, beginning of an action, up, carry, handle. Designates plural, intermittent action which, in accordance with the context, may also imply a plural, individually distributed subject and/or object.
k’ájeH
go.around
go around (doing something)
k’ólo
not.to
not be, have, lack
k’uton
going.to
future imperative, synonymous with (su)
kammoto
continue
continuative, moving conversation forward, action in process with no implication of termination
kas
crucial.plural
emphatic, conveys relatively strong emphasis
kiT
downward
down, downward, usually vertically
kiT
future.finish
future, downward, termination
koJ
move.away, leave
move away from in an unspecified direction; unable, incapable of, fail to
m
object
object marker
ma
past
past tense; participle (ex. going-gone, ex. being-been)
ma ~ ha
to.be
free varients of the same morpheme
ma, im
past tense
past tense
me
negative
allomorph of above
meH (me, mi:)
negative
negative. devise for expressing prohibition.
mi:
negative
allomorph of above (see sec. 632)
miT
in
in, into, move inside, into, down into
miT
into
in, into
mma
wish.had
ma and im morphed add s to end, wish… had, ought to have…
n
unsure
uncertain evidence, supposition, conjecture, an opinion based on unsure or inconclusive evidence
na:
possible
subjunctive, would, could, if, potential, possible, frequently past tense
no
move
generalized linear motion, move along, imcmplet or progressive
no
you
second person subjective; (you) certain allomorphs min, ny, ni; after dual and plural mo/m/Ø
no AS min, ny, ni, no, mo, m
2nd.person.subject
second person subject
omis
refers.back
reflexive, the subject performs the action on himself
os
finish
allomorph of bos
p
command.you
imperative singular, command addressed to one person, occasionally varies with (h) sometimes in final word position
pa
doubt
dubitative, reflects relatively strong doubt
pa
doubt
dubitative, reflects doubt
paJ
against
toward or against a surface
pe
condition
conditional, expresses result of prior condition, nearly synonymous with na:
piN
toward
move out of and toward
pú-to
almost
almost
py
encourage
hortative optative, encouragement, positive option or result.
s
crucial.plural
imperative plural (?), relatively mild emphasis
sa
reoccuring.habit
past habitual, reoccurring in narration
si:to
across.through
across, through
si:to
through
across, through
siP
complete
completive or terminative
su, sy
going.to
future imperative must occur after (be)
sy
continuious.action
habitual, continuous action, goal oriented or purposeful
t’a
on.top.of.move into
on top of, atop, move into
t’a
on.top.of
on top of
ta
concessive
concessive attitude on the part of the speaker
táwal
habitual
1) iterative, habitual 2) works as a verb
ti
cause
causative
ti2
for
benefactive, for the sake of
ti3
adverb.suffix
adverbial suffix
to
same.object.subject
reciprocal distributive 1) subject and identical object
to
recipricol.object.subject
reciprocal distributive 2) subject and object
to
two.vertical.objects
reciprocal distributive 3) two vertical objects object
to
two.people
reciprocal distributive 4) two persons, things, places, etc.
to
several.people
reciprocal distributive 5) plural subject
to
for.the.fun.of.it
reciprocal distributive 6) practice, pretend, play at
toto
about
about
toto
about
LD- about
toto
reciprocal.for
reciprocal for or toward oneanother
toto
between.people
reciprocal
toto
locational.directional
as an LD
túJ
reverse
reverse motion, turn back
Wa
command.plural
imperative plural, command addressed to two or more people
wajto
apart
apart
we
continious.action
continuous action accompanying and usually simultaneous with that designated by the main verb.
We’es, we:s
habit
usitative, usual or habitual action over a explicit or implicit period of time.
wono
remote.past
remote past, at some time in the past.
y
motion
motion
Component
Gloss
Full Gloss
j
1st.person.subject
first person subject after auxiliary verb
no AS min, ny, ni, no, mo, m
2nd.person.subject
second person subject
toto
about
about
toto
about
LD- about
doJ
about.to
inceptive, denotes incipient action or condition. Also occurs as a LD.
si:to
across.through
across, through
ti3
adverb.suffix
adverbial suffix
dik
against
against, facing, opposing
paJ
against
toward or against a surface
pú-to
almost
almost
wajto
apart
apart
daW
away
off of or away from and toward a goal; come toward
be
be
‘ú
be.somewhere
locative. be in a place, somewhere, there.
c’ewi:n
because
causative, because
bÓ-doJ
begin
inceptive
toto
between.people
reciprocal
c’iK, c’ip, c’ih
block
block, plug, cover an opening
ti
cause
causative
Wa
command.plural
imperative plural, command addressed to two or more people
p
command.you
imperative singular, command addressed to one person, occasionally varies with (h) sometimes in final word position
dow
commit
comitative, engage in , execute or effect. Represents accompanying or concomitant action.
siP
complete
completive or terminative
ta
concessive
concessive attitude on the part of the speaker
pe
condition
conditional, expresses result of prior condition, nearly synonymous with na:
‘an
consequence
anaphoric resultant, referring to or replacing an earlier word, connector
we
continious.action
continuous action accompanying and usually simultaneous with that designated by the main verb.
‘ý-jeH
continious.motion
1) continuous motion 2) verb come hither
kammoto
continue
continuative, moving conversation forward, action in process with no implication of termination
sy
continuious.action
habitual, continuous action, goal oriented or purposeful
s
crucial.plural
imperative plural (?), relatively mild emphasis
kas
crucial.plural
emphatic, conveys relatively strong emphasis
pa
doubt
dubitative, reflects relatively strong doubt
pa
doubt
dubitative, reflects doubt
in
downward
downward
kiT
downward
down, downward, usually vertically
bÓ-kiT
downward.begin
inceptive, 1) downward, terminative 2) future tense in
ja
dual
dual subject (Ø after py, be)
py
encourage
hortative optative, encouragement, positive option or result.
bís
exist
stay, exist, live
bos
finish
completive, adds a sense of completeness, finish doing something.
os
finish
allomorph of bos
ti2
for
benefactive, for the sake of
to
for.the.fun.of.it
reciprocal distributive 6) practice, pretend, play at
jo
frequent
iterative, frequent, beginning of an action, up, carry, handle. Designates plural, intermittent action which, in accordance with the context, may also imply a plural, individually distributed subject and/or object.
kiT
future.finish
future, downward, termination
k’ájeH
go.around
go around (doing something)
su, sy
going.to
future imperative must occur after (be)
k’uton
going.to
future imperative, synonymous with (su)
We’es, we:s
habit
usitative, usual or habitual action over a explicit or implicit period of time.
táwal
habitual
1) iterative, habitual 2) works as a verb
japa:n
happened.to
happened to, it seems
c’o
hearsay
quotative or hearsay
miT
in
in, into, move inside, into, down into
hajdyk
intense
intensive
miT
into
in, into
toto
locational.directional
as an LD
is
me
first person subject; j before Ø after ma and py
jeH
motion
continuous motion in unspecified direction
y
motion
motion
no
move
generalized linear motion, move along, imcmplet or progressive
koJ
move.away, leave
move away from in an unspecified direction; unable, incapable of, fail to
meH (me, mi:)
negative
negative. devise for expressing prohibition.
me
negative
allomorph of above
mi:
negative
allomorph of above (see sec. 632)
c’e
nevertheless
subject of dependent and main clause different (se after s) nevertheless, although, in spite of
de2
non-interrogative, presently unidentifyable
allomorphy elsewhere
k’ólo
not.to
not be, have, lack
m
object
object marker
t’a
on.top.of
on top of
t’a
on.top.of.move into
on top of, atop, move into
c’o
over
over, over edge of
ma
past
past tense; participle (ex. going-gone, ex. being-been)
im
past
past tense, allomorph of ma after vowel and CV sequence
ma, im
past tense
past tense
be
permission
permissive optative, expresses permission granted or the result or expected result of permission
bO
permission
allomorphy of (be) before first person dual and plural
h
plural
plural distributive
je
plural
plural subjective (Ø after py, be)
na:
possible
subjunctive, would, could, if, potential, possible, frequently past tense
by
prohibit
cavetive optative, expresses prohibition, warning, negative result
de
question
interrogative mode before dual or plural
dO
question
allomorphy dO before dual and plural, zero in second person
da
question
allomorphy before a
to
recipricol.object.subject
reciprocal distributive 2) subject and object
toto
reciprocal.for
reciprocal for or toward oneanother
omis
refers.back
reflexive, the subject performs the action on himself
wono
remote.past
remote past, at some time in the past.
sa
reoccuring.habit
past habitual, reoccurring in narration
túJ
reverse
reverse motion, turn back
is’an
same.adverb.subject.
when subject of both the participle and the main clause are identical.
to
same.object.subject
reciprocal distributive 1) subject and identical object
c’ekiT
seems
seem c’é(see)+kiT(down, terminative, future)
háwaky
seems.maybe
seem (like), maybe. Occurs with in
to
several.people
reciprocal distributive 5) plural subject
j
stem.formant
stem formant (forms verb or noun)
si:to
through
across, through
ha
to.be
neutral, be, do, happen (see sec.590)
ma ~ ha
to.be
free varients of the same morpheme
immoto, moto
together
together; move together, around, circle, about
piN
toward
move out of and toward
to
two.people
reciprocal distributive 4) two persons, things, places, etc.
to
two.vertical.objects
reciprocal distributive 3) two vertical objects object
bÓ-kiJ
unable
unable, have difficulty
n
unsure
uncertain evidence, supposition, conjecture, an opinion based on unsure or inconclusive evidence
in
verb.marker or verb.final
neutral semantically, identifies non-finite verbs- past, remote past, future and unmarked or recent.
mma
wish.had
ma and im morphed add s to end, wish… had, ought to have…
no
you
second person subjective; (you) certain allomorphs min, ny, ni; after dual and plural mo/m/Ø