Component
Gloss
Class Description
{beH}
little
Class 1
{dik’y}
close.to
Class 1
{je}
that.those
Class 1
{ky}
agent
Class 1
{ky}
instrument
Class 1
{kymmi:}
before
Class 1
{la}
noun formant
Class 1
{m}
nominalizer
Class 1
{ma}
instrument
Class 1
//mi:// ~ //mmi//
negative
Class 1
{n}
?
Class 1
{naH}
side.of, general.area, those.or.my.area
Class 1
{pe}
attribute
Class 1
{pe}
attribute
Class 1
{pe}
attribute
Class 1
{si}
attribute
Class 1
/h/
plural
Class 2
/j/
plural
Class 2
/j/
noun.formant
Class 2
{kyto}
group
Class 2
{c’ok’}
dual
Class 3 Inflection-number
{ma:}
dual
Class 3 Inflection-number
{sa:}
dual
Class 3 Inflection-number
{nono}
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
//me//
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
//se//
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
//tyty//, //pypy//
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
//k’i//
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
//p’y//
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
//pa://
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
//pa:// ~ //paJ//
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
{im}
subject
Class 4 Inflection-case
{im}
equivalent.nouns
Class 4 Inflection-case
{im}
nominative
Class 4 Inflection-case
{im}
noun.opposition.to.subject
Class 4 Inflection-case
{im}
adverbial.absolute
Class 4 Inflection-case
//0//
subject
Class 4 Inflection-case
{i}
direct.object.verbal.action
Class 4 Inflection-case
{i}
indirect.object
Class 4 Inflection-case
{i}
vocative
Class 4 Inflection-case
{i}
adverbial.absolute
Class 4 Inflection-case
//0//
object
Class 4 Inflection-case
{k’i}
possessor
Class 4 Inflection-case
{k’i}
passive.agent
Class 4 Inflection-case
{k’i}
possessed.action
Class 4 Inflection-case
{di}
at
Class 4 Inflection-case
{di}
toward
Class 4 Inflection-case
{di}
while.doing
Class 4 Inflection-case
{di}
instrumental
Class 4 Inflection-case
{k’an}
with
Class 4 Inflection-case
{ni}
instrumental
Class 4 Inflection-case
{ni}
manner.verb.performed
Class 4 Inflection-case
{nak}
to.toward
Class 4 Inflection-case
{nak}
indirect.object
Class 4 Inflection-case
{nak}
length.of.time
Class 4 Inflection-case
{nak}
number.formant
Class 4 Inflection-case
{na:}
motion.away
Class 4 Inflection-case
{na}
from.belong.to
Class 4 Inflection-case
{hoj}
next.to
Postfixes
//huj//
next.to
Postfixes
{ku:}
just.only
Postfixes
//ky//
just.only
Postfixes
{pikno}
just.only
Postfixes
{teH}
emphasis
Postfixes
{teH}
always
Postfixes
{teH}
comisserative
Postfixes
{teH}
indefinite.reference
Postfixes
{im2}
compound.marker
Postfixes
{mó-je}
contextual
Demonstratives
{mý-je}
general.demonstrative
Demonstratives
{ʔá-ma}
that.one
Demonstratives
{mó}
context.dependent
Demonstratives
{héde}
this.here.now
Demonstratives
{hódo}
medial
Demonstratives
{húdu}
distal
Demonstratives
//paJ//
human.plural
Demonstratives
//nono//
non.human.plural
Demonstratives
{kóleH}
male.child
Inalienably Possessed
{kýle}
female.child
Inalienably Possessed
{káno}
male.parent
Inalienably Possessed
{ʔéssuJ}
female.parent
Inalienably Possessed
Component
Gloss
Full Gloss
//0//
subject
subject is 0 after nik and min
//0//
object
Allomorph of {i} "object", after {nìk} and {mín}
{ʔá-ma}
that.one
anaphoric
{beH}
little
diminutive, little or cute version ie. doggie or horsie
{c’ok’}
dual
dual
{di}
at
locative
{di}
toward
motion toward a goal
{di}
while.doing
temporal status in absolute constructions
{di}
instrumental
used to describe the instrument of verbal action
{dik’y}
close.to
rather close to
{ʔéssuJ}
female.parent
age/sex attributive {‘éssuJ} - female parent
/h/
plural
plural
{héde}
this.here.now
proximal: this, here, now
{hódo}
medial
medial: that.there.then.later
{hoj}
next.to
near, close to This is usually between number (class 3) and case (class 4), rarely after case. Rethink whether it's really a postfix.
{húdu}
distal
distal: yon.yonder.much, earlier.later
//huj//
next.to
Allomorph of {hoJ} near, close to
{i}
direct.object.verbal.action
identifies direct object of verbal action or condition
{i}
indirect.object
indicates indirect object of verbal action.
{i}
vocative
vocative
{i}
adverbial.absolute
serves as an adverbial absolute. Ultan's examples here need to be reviewed. Maybe not actually illustrative of {I}
{im}
subject
identifies subject of the predicate. zero after pronoun ník.
{im}
equivalent.nouns
marks both equivalent nouns in equational sentances
{im}
nominative
used as a naming case or nominative
{im}
noun.opposition.to.subject
identifies a noun or noun phrase in apposition to the subject.
{im}
adverbial.absolute
used as an adverbial absolute to express temporal or locative condition.
{im2}
compound.marker
attributive compound marker, occurs at end of each word in a noun phrase except the last word, which is the head noun
/j/
plural
plural
/j/
noun.formant
noun formant
{je}
that.those
demonstrative suffix
{k’an}
with
comitative
//k’i//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} only after máj (child)
{k’i}
possessor
possessive - possessor of the referent noun
{k’i}
passive.agent
passive agent
{k’i}
possessed.action
possessive with a locative suffix means that an action or condition is possessed.
{káno}
male.parent
age/sex attributive {káno} - male parent
{kóleH}
male.child
age/sex attributive {kóleH} - male child
{ku:}
just.only
emphatic placing particular emphasis on the constituent noun {ku:} and pikno both occur before case in the examples. Why are called postfixes?
{ky}
agent
agentive
{ky}
instrument
instrument by means of which an action is formed
//ky//
just.only
Allomorph of {ku:} LS employs //ky// ~ //ku://
{kýle}
female.child
age/sex attributive {kýle} - female child
{kymmi:}
before
before, prior to, without…
{kyto}
group
collective, group of animate beings
{la}
noun formant
noun formant indeterminate meaning
{m}
nominalizer
nominalizer
{ma}
instrument
near synonymous with ky, used to derive nouns from verb stems
{ma:}
dual
dual after mín, second person
//me//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} plural only after min
//mi:// ~ //mmi//
negative
Allomorphs of meH, negative
{mó}
context.dependent
deictic- meaning dependent on the context
{mó-je}
contextual
deictic- meaning dependent on the context
{mý-je}
general.demonstrative
general.demonstrative
{n}
?
unidentifiable suffix
{na:}
motion.away
ablative, expresses motion away from
{na}
from.belong.to
denotes source of origin
{naH}
side.of, general.area, those.or.my.area
side (of), general area, relatives, friends
{nak}
to.toward
motion toward a goal
{nak}
indirect.object
indirect object
{nak}
length.of.time
temoporally
{nak}
number.formant
how numbers in the teens are formed
{ni}
instrumental
denotes an instrument by which an action is performed
{ni}
manner.verb.performed
denotes manner in which main verb referent is performed
{nono}
plural
plural for non-human references, and also afterc'íla:k' 'baby' and kýla:te 'young girl'. (nono can also occur after the plural allomorphs p'y and p'aJ.)
//nono//
non.human.plural
non-human plural
//p’y//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} only after kóleH (boy); in a few recorded instances, p'y occurs before /h/ or /j/ (class 2)
//pa://
plural
Allomorph of {nono} after all human nouns except boy and after {kyto} animate collective
//pa:// ~ //paJ//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} LS uses paJ after human nouns except boy, girl and old man
//paJ//
human.plural
human plural
{pe}
attribute
attributive - qualitative, passive, active
{pe}
attribute
attributive - locational before locative suffixes
{pe}
attribute
attributive - expressing passive notions
{pikno}
just.only
synonymous with ku:
{sa:}
dual
dual after other pronouns/demonstratives
//se//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} plural,after the other two pronouns (we they)
{si}
attribute
unidentifiable suffix, possible stem formant
{teH}
emphasis
denotes particularized emphasis
{teH}
always
refers to emphatic repetition of habit
{teH}
comisserative
commiserative
{teH}
indefinite.reference
has indefinite reference
//tyty//, //pypy//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} //tyty// only after {téH} or //pypy// only after {téH}
Component
Gloss
Full Gloss
{n}
?
unidentifiable suffix
{im}
adverbial.absolute
used as an adverbial absolute to express temporal or locative condition.
{i}
adverbial.absolute
serves as an adverbial absolute. Ultan's examples here need to be reviewed. Maybe not actually illustrative of {I}
{ky}
agent
agentive
{teH}
always
refers to emphatic repetition of habit
{di}
at
locative
{pe}
attribute
attributive - qualitative, passive, active
{pe}
attribute
attributive - locational before locative suffixes
{pe}
attribute
attributive - expressing passive notions
{si}
attribute
unidentifiable suffix, possible stem formant
{kymmi:}
before
before, prior to, without…
{dik’y}
close.to
rather close to
{teH}
comisserative
commiserative
{im2}
compound.marker
attributive compound marker, occurs at end of each word in a noun phrase except the last word, which is the head noun
{mó}
context.dependent
deictic- meaning dependent on the context
{mó-je}
contextual
deictic- meaning dependent on the context
{i}
direct.object.verbal.action
identifies direct object of verbal action or condition
{húdu}
distal
distal: yon.yonder.much, earlier.later
{c’ok’}
dual
dual
{ma:}
dual
dual after mín, second person
{sa:}
dual
dual after other pronouns/demonstratives
{teH}
emphasis
denotes particularized emphasis
{im}
equivalent.nouns
marks both equivalent nouns in equational sentances
{kýle}
female.child
age/sex attributive {kýle} - female child
{ʔéssuJ}
female.parent
age/sex attributive {‘éssuJ} - female parent
{na}
from.belong.to
denotes source of origin
{mý-je}
general.demonstrative
general.demonstrative
{kyto}
group
collective, group of animate beings
//paJ//
human.plural
human plural
{teH}
indefinite.reference
has indefinite reference
{i}
indirect.object
indicates indirect object of verbal action.
{nak}
indirect.object
indirect object
{ky}
instrument
instrument by means of which an action is formed
{ma}
instrument
near synonymous with ky, used to derive nouns from verb stems
{di}
instrumental
used to describe the instrument of verbal action
{ni}
instrumental
denotes an instrument by which an action is performed
{ku:}
just.only
emphatic placing particular emphasis on the constituent noun {ku:} and pikno both occur before case in the examples. Why are called postfixes?
//ky//
just.only
Allomorph of {ku:} LS employs //ky// ~ //ku://
{pikno}
just.only
synonymous with ku:
{nak}
length.of.time
temoporally
{beH}
little
diminutive, little or cute version ie. doggie or horsie
{kóleH}
male.child
age/sex attributive {kóleH} - male child
{káno}
male.parent
age/sex attributive {káno} - male parent
{ni}
manner.verb.performed
denotes manner in which main verb referent is performed
{hódo}
medial
medial: that.there.then.later
{na:}
motion.away
ablative, expresses motion away from
//mi:// ~ //mmi//
negative
Allomorphs of meH, negative
{hoj}
next.to
near, close to This is usually between number (class 3) and case (class 4), rarely after case. Rethink whether it's really a postfix.
//huj//
next.to
Allomorph of {hoJ} near, close to
{m}
nominalizer
nominalizer
{im}
nominative
used as a naming case or nominative
//nono//
non.human.plural
non-human plural
{la}
noun formant
noun formant indeterminate meaning
/j/
noun.formant
noun formant
{im}
noun.opposition.to.subject
identifies a noun or noun phrase in apposition to the subject.
{nak}
number.formant
how numbers in the teens are formed
//0//
object
Allomorph of {i} "object", after {nìk} and {mín}
{k’i}
passive.agent
passive agent
/h/
plural
plural
/j/
plural
plural
{nono}
plural
plural for non-human references, and also afterc'íla:k' 'baby' and kýla:te 'young girl'. (nono can also occur after the plural allomorphs p'y and p'aJ.)
//me//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} plural only after min
//se//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} plural,after the other two pronouns (we they)
//tyty//, //pypy//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} //tyty// only after {téH} or //pypy// only after {téH}
//k’i//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} only after máj (child)
//p’y//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} only after kóleH (boy); in a few recorded instances, p'y occurs before /h/ or /j/ (class 2)
//pa://
plural
Allomorph of {nono} after all human nouns except boy and after {kyto} animate collective
//pa:// ~ //paJ//
plural
Allomorph of {nono} LS uses paJ after human nouns except boy, girl and old man
{k’i}
possessed.action
possessive with a locative suffix means that an action or condition is possessed.
{k’i}
possessor
possessive - possessor of the referent noun
{naH}
side.of, general.area, those.or.my.area
side (of), general area, relatives, friends
{im}
subject
identifies subject of the predicate. zero after pronoun ník.
//0//
subject
subject is 0 after nik and min
{ʔá-ma}
that.one
anaphoric
{je}
that.those
demonstrative suffix
{héde}
this.here.now
proximal: this, here, now
{nak}
to.toward
motion toward a goal
{di}
toward
motion toward a goal
{i}
vocative
vocative
{di}
while.doing
temporal status in absolute constructions
{k’an}
with
comitative
close[X]