lesson 8 commands

Commands- telling people what to do – are very useful things for language learners – both because in most languages they are often simple and short and therefore relatively easy to learn, and also because using a command can get things done!

In English, when we tell someone to do something, we just use a bare verb, like “Eat!” or”Go home!” But commands in Konkow are made by adding a suffix onto the verb. Furthermore, you add a different suffix depending on whether you are talking to one person, or more than one. Commands also differ depending on whether you are telling someone to do something right now or at some future time.
*****call vocabulary list*****
Imperative Singular -p

To give a command to an individual person, put -p at the end of the verb, if it is preceded by a vowel.
But if there is a consonant before it, the p disappears. (Of course, you may already have noticed that a command does not end with the verb-final -in.)

After a vowel:

móp!
drink!
drink
-p!
imperative
   
bèlem   móp!
Drink again!
bèlem
again
   
water
-p!
imperative
   

After a consonant there is no p

pédaw!
Come and eat!
eat
-daw!
toward.​goal
   
hú・c’ik!
Forget it!
hú・c’ik!
forget.​it
   
exercises 1 and 2
Exercise 1 Make the following verb roots into commands. (Some won’t change at all except for your tone of voice.) Konkow Root English Translation Konkow Command Form tédo: Stand up. ’yk’oj Go away. húpajtì Build a fire.
Exercise 2 Turn the following sentences into commands. (Remember to take away the verb final -n or -in before adding the command suffix.). Example: mehun (He’s) holding it in (his) hand. mehup! Hold it in (your) hand! Root English Konkow Command English me:n. He grabbed. Grab it! c’esyn. He looked. Look! wóc’otin. He split a notch in it. Split a notch in it! c’úk’ut’òmisin. You are washing yourself. Wash yourself! mỳ k’élc’onon. (s/he) hugged him. Hug him!
imperative plural-wa -a

To give a command to two or more people, use -wa, which loses the w and becomes -a after a consonant.


But also, the consonant gets doubled (meaning it gets held longer), so in a way we could think of it as being that the -w turns into a copy of the preceding consonant.
After a vowel: májk’im, ỳjé:wa Children, come here!
After a consonant ’ỳsíppa! Get out! (said to a group)
hú:c’ikka! Forget it
exercises 3

The suffixes you just learned, -p and -wa / -a, are used if you are telling someone to do something right now.

Add the proper plural command form after these verb stems (examples are above): Root Konkow Ending English Translation sol Sing, you all! býhbý Be still, you all! ’uti baya: Crack acorns, you all! yokit Dive, you all! c’úk’ut’òmis Wash yourselves!
Future Imperatives-sy  -k’uton

But if you are telling someone to do something at some later time, there are different suffixes that you put in before -p or -wa / -a. -sy and -kuton (either one can be used without changing the basic meaning) are used before the imperative if you want someone to do something at some future time.

Examples with –sy and -p (Some Konkow speakers say -su instead of -sy, so take your choice.) pébesỳp! Be sure and eat (when you come by later). màhwó:sỳp! Clap your hands (when you go to the concert tonight).
Examples with -k’uton. (The -p will never show up because -kuton ends in a consonant.) Pébek’úton! Be sure and eat (when you come by later)! màhwó:k’úton! Clap your hands (after he sings)!
Examples for plural future commands (unlike the singular, you can see the plural form with k’uton): nìk bòlopajbésywa! You will have to help me (when I make it). ’ỳhjo’e:k’utonnà! Be careful! (when you get there)
extra materials
Extra resources, charts, posters, etc
use these extras for reference and to practice what you have learned
summary - imperative rules
Imperative Rule Example Meaning
1.Singular -p after a vowel mop!
Drink!
Command to one person to do an action now
2.Singular after a consonant pedaw!
Come eat!
Command to one person to do an action now
3.Plural -wa after a vowel ʔỳjé:wa!
Come here!
Command to more than one person to do an action later
4.Plural -a after doubled consonant ʔỳsíppa!
Get out!
Command to more than one person to do an action later
5.Future A w/ singular -p -syp after vowel or consonant pébesỳp!
Eat! (e.g. when you get there)
pinsyp!
Listen! (e.g. when you go to class)
Command for one person to do an action later
6.Future A w/ plural -wa -sywa nìk bòlopajbésywa!
Help me!
(e.g. when I do it)
Command for more than one person to an action later
7.Future B w/ singular -p -k’uton
(-p does not show up because of rule 2)
màhwó:k’úton!
Clap your hands!
(e.g. after he sings)
Command for more than one person to an action later
8.Future B w/ plural -wa -k’utonna
(following rule 4 for -wa)
ʔỳhjo’e:k’utonnà!
Be careful! (plural ie: when you get there)
Command for more than more than one person do to an action later
extra materials
Extra resources, charts, posters, etc
use these extras for reference and to practice what you have learned